The following are terms that define specific relationships in a family tree.
Father- male parent
Mother- female parent
They represent the generation above you
Brother- male sibling
Sister- female sibling
These represent the same generation as you.
Son- male offspring
Daughter- female offspring
These represent the generation below you on the family tree.
Grandson- son of your children
Granddaughter- daughter of your children.
Great-Grandchildren- for each successive generation, prefix with “great”.
Going backwards in time:
Maternal Grandfather- your mother’s father
Maternal Grandmother- your mother’s mother.
Paternal Grandfather– your father’s father
Paternal Grandmother- your father’s mother
Great-Grandparents- the parents of your grandparents.
Uncle- the brother of one of your parents
Aunt- the sister of one of your parents
Nephew- the son of your sibling
Niece- the daughter of your sibling
Grand-nephew- the son of your nephew, and the same generation as your grandchildren
Grand-niece- the daughter of your niece.
First cousin- the child of your uncle or aunt and the same generation as yourself.
First Cousin Once removed- the son or daughter of your first cousin
First Cousin twice removed- the grandson or granddaughter of your first cousin
First Cousin three times removed- the great-grandson or great granddaughter of your first cousin
Great Uncle or Aunt- the brother or sister of your grandparents
First Cousin Once Removed can also refer to the son or daughter of your great uncle or aunt, and the same generation as your parents.
Second Cousin- the grandson or granddaughter of your great uncle or aunt and the same generation as yourself
Second Cousin Once Removed- the great-grandson of your great uncle or aunt and the same generation as your children
Second Cousin Twice Removed- the great-great grandson of your great uncle or aunt and the same generation as your grandchildren.
The word “removed” is used to describe a relationship where the two people are from different generations. Once removed means there is a difference of one generation. An example is your mother’s first cousin is your first cousin once removed. Twice removed means there is a two generation difference. Your grandmother’s first cousin will be your first cousin twice removed.