The Enmore Cork Ireland to Port Phillip Victoria Australia 1841

Enmore 1841 William and Mary Fannin
Passengers on the Enmore from Cork Ireland to Port Phillip Victoria Australia 1841

The ‘Enmore’ was a 281 ton barque that departed Cork, Ireland on 9 June 1841 with 107 people on board.

Cork Queenstowm Harbor
Queenstown Harbour Cork

It left from Cobh (pronounced “Cove”) County Cork. Cobh was renamed Queenstown to honour the Queen Victoria’s visit to Ireland in 1849. It was, however, changed back to Cobh after Irish Independence in 1920. This was the last time and place William and Catherine Fanning stood on Irish soil and the last time they saw their families. They died in Bulla, Victoria, Australia and did not return to Ireland.

The captain was James Henry Ellis and the ship’s doctor Robert Gordon Coombe. First Mate was James William Smith.

In Ireland, the Agent was expected to select only suitable people who came either as married or single, with ages under 40, and each had to have a Certificate from their home parish attesting their status.

All the passengers were brought out by the importer, James Cain, of Melbourne. The Importer was the one who collected the Bounty Immigrants for departure.  Fares(bounty) were 19 pounds. This is the equivalent of about $3,436 in today’s money. There was one death but no births on the voyage.

The introduction of the Bounty System enabled many people from Ireland, as well as from England and Scotland, to migrate to Australia. During the 1830’s and 1840’s almost half of all assisted migrants were of Irish origin. The emigration figures for 1841 show that of the people who arrived in Australia there were 4,563 English, 1,616 Scottish, and 13,400 Irish.

1841 has been called “The Great Year for Immigration to Australia”. This year saw the largest influx of immigrants to Australia before the Gold Rushes. The Irish immigrants mostly came from the South of Ireland. Convict transportation ceased in 1841,the new colonies needed labour and land sales were high.Revenue from land sales was used to pay the fares(bounties) of immigrants to the colonies. 1841 is the first year that Australia competed with America and Canada as a destination for immigrants. Between 1840-41 assisted immigration to Australia trebled.

There were 18 families, 35 single females and 25 single males. Of the 96 adults 15 could read and write, 32 could read and 49 could neither read or write.94 were Catholic and 9 were Protestant. One person, Mr Noukes Bartin, paid his own fare.

The “Enmore” arrived in Port Phillip on the 4th of October 1841 after a three month journey. On board were my ancestors William Patrick Fanning (listed as Fannin) and his wife Catherine Hayes (listed as Mary Fannin). They were married in Cork before emigrating. Both came from Co Tipperary, with William being born in Thurles Parish.

Tipperary passengers on the Enmore:

William Boyle, age 26, farm servant, RC. His wife is Winifred, age 25, farm servant, RC, both could neither read or write.

Thomas Burke, age 22, farm servant, RC, and his wife Biddy age 22, farm servant, both could read and write.

Patrick, 27, and Biddy, 32, Crow, farm servants, RC, Patrick can read but Biddy can neither read or write.

Michael, 32, and Catherine, 32, Dwyer, farm servants, RC, can both read and write.

Michael ,24, and Margaret, 24, Cleary, farm servants, RC, both can read and write.

Wiliam, 28, and Mary,24, Fannin, farm servants, RC, William can read, Mary can do neither. These are my ancestors who settled at Bulla in Victoria.

Michael Barret, 29, labourer, RC, could neither read or write.

William Hanly, 22, labourer, RC, neither read or write.

William O’Donnell, 22, labourer, RC, Could read and write, unmarried.

Michael Quilk, 22, labourer, RC , could neither read or write.

John Ryan, 28, labourer, RC, Could neither read or write, unmarried.

Patrick Reid, 22, labourer, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Alexander Ryan 26, labourer, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Patrick Ryan, 19, labourer, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

John Ryan, 23,labourer, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Ann Brohan 28, house servant, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Honora Canty, 26, house servant, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Mary Cormack, 26, house servant, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Catherine Carroll, 25, house servant, RC, neither read or write, unmarried.

Catherine Handley, 23, house servant, Protestant, unmarried.

Johanna Murphy, 27, house servant, RC, reads, unmarried.

Catherine Quirk, 21, house servant, RC, reads and writes, unmarried.

Mary Ryan, 19, house servant, RC, reads, unmarried.

Biddy Ryan, 19, house servant, RC, reads, unmarried.

Mary Ryan, 22, house servant, RC, reads, unmarried.

Mary Ryan, 21, house servant, RC, reads, unmarried.

The other passengers on the Enmore were:

Michael Burke 27, farm servant, his wife Margaret 28,farm servant, and their 8mth old daughter, Catherine.RC. can read and write. From Co Limerick

James Connor 28, farm servant and his wife, Eliza 22, farm servant, neither read nor write. From Co Cork

Christopher Dunn 28 and wife Ellen 20,farm servants. RC, neither read nor write Co Cork

Thomas Evans 24 and wife 22(not named), farm servants. Protestant. Can read and write. Co Wicklow

Denis Gurney 26 and Betty 25,farm servants, and their daughter Mary 2 and a half RC can read and write Co Cork

Mathew Leary 32 and his wife Johanna 33 farm servants. Their daughters Johanna 5 and Betty 8mos RC can neither read nor write Co Limerick

Thomas Norman 30, Smith and his wife Biddy 28,housekeeper and their son John 3 and a half RC neither read nor write Co Waterford

Martin O’Keeffe 21 labourer and wife Judith 20 housemaid RC can read & write Co Clare

Connor Ryan 32 farm servant, wife Biddy 26 farm servant daughters Johanna 6 and Catherine 1 and a half RC can read & write Co Clare

John Ryan 24 farm servant and his wife Biddy 26 also a farm servant RC both can read Co Clare

Michael Sheelan(Sheehan?) 24 farm servant and his wife Margaret 20 RC can read & write Co Clare

Thomas Welch 26 farm servant and his wife Ellen 25 farm servant,RC,neither read nor write Co Cork

John Cross 28 Labourer RC neither read nor write Co Limerick

Michael Costigan 24, labourer RC, neither read nor write Queen’s Co

Denis Costigan 27, Labourer RC neither read nor write Queen’s Co

James Denworth 24, labourer RC neither read nor write Co Clare

Timothy Denworth 23, labourer,RC neither read nor write Co Clare

Timothy Donoghie(?) 21 labourer RC can read & write Co Cork

John Dunn 20 labourer RC can read & write Co Cork

David Doolan 25 labourer RC can read & write Co Cork

William Hackett 25 Labourer RC neither read nor write Queen’s Co

Patrick Kirby 20 labourer RC reads and writes Co Cork

John Mansfield 20 labourer RC reads and writes Co Cork

John O’Brien 22 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

George Pratt 23 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Queen’s Co

Barny Ryley 23 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Co Cavan

John Sullivan 21 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

Morris Trahy 22 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Co Limerick

Edmund Welsh 26 labourer RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

Patrick Kirby was sent by Mr La Trobe on the 8th Dec 1841 for admission into the Lunatic Asylum

Catherine Bourke 21 House Servant RC neither read nor write Co Limerick

Margaret Bourke 23 House Servant RC neither read nor write Co Limerick

Grace Costigan 20 house servant RC neither read nor write Queen’s Co

Rose Clayton 24 house servant RC neither read nor write Co Cavan

Margaret Cantlin 25 House servant RC neither read nor write Co Limerick

Ann Doolan 19 house servant RC neither read nor write Co Cork

Mary Farrell 20 House servant,RC neither read nor write Queen’s Co

Catherine Fitzwilliam 23 House servant,Protestant reads Dublin

Ellen Hayes 22 house servant Protestant reads and writes Co Cork

Honora Hyde 18 house servant RC reads and writes Co Cork

Margaret Hussey 21 House servant Protestant reads and writes Co Cavan

Biddy Hyde 15 house servant RC reads and writes Co Cork

Betty Hyde 16 house servant RC reads and writes Co Cork

Mary Kennedy 20 house servant RC reads Co Clare

Mary Kirley 21 house servant RC reads and writes Co Cork

Ann Lynch 23 house servant RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

Ellen Maxwell 16 house servant RC reads Co Cork

Mary O’Brien 18 house servant RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

Jane O’Leary 19 house servant RC neither reads nor writes Co Cork

Aphros Pratt 20 house servant Protestant can read and write Queen’s Co

Margaret Pratt 16 house servant Protestant reads and writes Queen’s Co

Biddy Shean(Sheehan?) 21 house servant RC reads Co Clare

Jane Smith 18 house servant Protestant reads Co Clare

Margaret Yersley 20 House servant RC reads Co Cork

The Enmore left Melbourne, with Captain Ellis,on Feb 2 1842 for London, with 1150 bales of wool and 2150 bullock horns.

Ireland in 1841

maynooth Ireland 1851

“In 1841 Ireland had long been under British rule, and became united with England in 1801. A large Anglo-Irish population, descendants of people who had settled in Ireland some centuries earlier, were the land-owning aristocracy. The Church of Ireland was also in a privileged position, and tenants were required to pay tithes to a parson of a faith they considered heretical.

Rebellions against British rule occurred in 1798 and 1803. Many people perished, and many rebels were transported to Australia. Others were transported because they were convicted of crimes of violent protest against poverty and landlordism; yet others were transported because they were ordinary criminals, mostly thieves, often as a consequence of their poverty.

The period from the late eighteenth century until the big potato famine in the eighteen-forties was one in which there was literally a “population explosion”. Montesquieu calls population “une immense manufacture”. It certainly flourished in Ireland. From an estimated population of 4,753,000 in 1791, the figure rose to 8,175,124 in 1841. This increase was achieved despite the migration in the period 1780-1845 of 1,140,000 to the U.S.A. and Canada, 600,000 to England and Scotland, and a smaller number to Australia.

The standard of living improved in the second half of the eighteenth century. Arthur Young visited Ireland in 1776, and in the most fertile districts he found “lower classes” – tenant farmers’ -had a sufficient supply of potatoes. They normally kept a cow, a pig, a flock of hens, which lived in the cabin with the family, and numerous lakes abounded with fish.

“But reverse the medal: They are ill-clothed and make a wretched appearance, and, what is worse, are much Oppressed by many who make them pay too dear for keeping a cow, horse, etc., and the wretched cabins, sometimes made out of sods of clay, have to house the livestock as well as the family.”

This oppression was due to the land tenure system. Landlords farmed out rents to middle-men, who put the screw on “rack-renting”. Many tenants felt their only recourse was to force. Land-leagues sprang up in the 1760’s “Whiteboys” (so named for their hoods) terrorised the country.

The housing position remained shocking. The census of 1841 graded “houses” in Ireland Into four classes. The fourth and lowest class consisted of windowless mud cabins of a single room. “Nearly half of the families of the rural population” reported the Census Commissioners, “are living in the lowest scale”. Pigs slept with their owners.

There were severe famines in Ireland in 1817, 1822, 1826, 1831,1835-37. Then came the Great Famine of 1845, so called because instead of attacking one and a half million, as in 1817, it killed some two million people directly and forced a million more into the hunger-hulks to emigrate.

Over most of the first half of the century, there was extreme agrarian distress. William Carleton called Ireland “one vast lazar-house, filled with famine, disease and distress”. The Poor Law Commission of 1836 reported that for about 30 weeks of every year some 585,000 (with 1,800,000 dependants) were “out of work and in distress”. This led to the passing of the Irish Poor Law and the establishment of workhouses.”

From 1831-1836 the tithe resistance movement was in full spate in County Cork, as well as in Kilkenny, Tipperary and Waterford. Tithes were taken on two things touching the peasant’s life closely, bog-turf and potatoes. The clerical income derived from potatoes was enormous. Farmers armed with pitchforks and pikes engaged in hand to hand fighting with the military and police, who had rifles, bayonets and artillery. The last of these encounters took place at Rathmacormac, a hamlet between Cork and Castletownroche, in December 1834 when soldiers with a Protestant clergyman (who was also a justice of the police) proceeded to collect a tithe of forty shillings from a widow. In 1838 the resistance proved successful and Parliament passed the Tithe Commutation Act.

Taken with permission from “The Overflow of Clancy” by Eric G. Clancy.